For many centuries the Chinese have used gaiwans to brew their fine teas. The saucer protects fingers, the lid retains heat and stirs leaves. Simply hold the gaiwan centered on fingers and place thumb of same hand on the lid adjusting so the tea may flow while holding leaves back. For green teas, do not preheat the cup and leave the lid off during brewing. Higher temperature brewing will require preheating and covering witht the lid. Drink directly from the gaiwan or decant into another cup or gaiwan. Keep brewing until your leaves are spent.